So what makes a good teaching practice; facilitates students’ effective learning?
Great teaching is defined as that which leads to improved student progress; we define effective teaching as that which leads to improved student achievement using outcomes that matter to their future success. Defining effective teaching is not easy. The research keeps coming back to this critical point: student progress is the standard by which teacher quality should be assessed. Ultimately, for a judgement about whether teaching is effective, to be seen as trustworthy, it must be checked against the progress being made by students
Effective teachers can be identified primarily in terms of these aspects of teaching: classroom management, expectations of students, relationship with students, and personal qualities like fairness and respect. Likewise, teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes are important for understanding and improving pedagogical processes. They are closely linked to teachers’ strategies for handling with challenges in their daily professional life and to their general well-being, and they shape students’ learning environment and influence student motivation and achievement. For example, Instructional practices, in turn, depend on what teachers bring to the classroom. Professional competence is believed to be a crucial factor in classroom and school practices (Shulman, 1987, Campbell et al., 2004; Baumert and Kunter, 2006). Teachers’ professional knowledge and actual practices, most effective teachers have deep knowledge of the subjects they teach, and when teachers’ knowledge falls below a certain level it is a significant impediment to students’ learning. As well as a strong understanding of the material being taught, teachers must also understand the ways students think about the content, be able to evaluate the thinking behind students’ own methods, and identify students’ common misconceptions. And good instruction, of course, is not determined just by the teacher’s background, beliefs and attitudes; it should also be responsive to students’ needs and various student, classroom and school background factors. It includes elements such as effective questioning and use of assessment by teachers. Specific practices, like reviewing previous learning, providing model responses for students, giving adequate time for practice to implant skills and progressively introducing new learning or scaffolding are also fundamentals of high quality instruction.
Why are some teachers better than others? Part of the answer lies in the teaching strategies that they use; however, another part of the answer lies in the teachers themselves. Teachers must be a passionate people, they love what they teach, being teacher, challenge of helping each other students and contaminate their students with a desire to engage learning. Teachers need to acquire new qualities and continue to grow and evolve as they are role models for the students. (Celikoz, 2010). The teacher skills include staying calm, eliminating negative thoughts or feelings, disengaging stress, remembering that students have their own realities and are doing their best, not taking students’ actions personally, remembering that students are not bad rather just in the process of development, and maintaining a sense of humor. (Whistler, 1992). The need for support structures for educators include clear understandings that teaching involves more than just subject matter knowledge and classroom management skills, In particular, Shulman (1987, p. 8) calls the knowledge needed for effectively teaching a subject “technological pedagogical content knowledge” (TPACK) which represents the blending of technology, content and pedagogy into an understanding of how topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction to facilitate how learning been transferred by use of modern technology.
People are continually learning and constructing meaning throughout their whole life from communications within their community, environment and social interactions and now through the social network, internet and advancement of technology. Theories are constantly changing with the advancements of technology, like both cognitive and behaviour influences and benefits from technology is that of social learning. In learning by direct experience, people construct conceptions of behaviour from observing the effects of their actions; in learning by modelling, they derive the conceptions from observing the structure of the behaviour being observed. Usually, teachers guide the students to construct their own knowledge and meaning of their experiences, this essence relies on the knowledge that stresses the emphases on personal interpretation and belief the concept while reality exist separate from experience. Same with theory of knowledge of constructivism that knowledge is not passively accumulated, but rather, is the result of active cognizing by individual understanding.